|No.||Name||Year||Country / Region||Death Toll|
|1||Bhola Cyclone||1970||Bangladesh||500,000 deaths|
|2||Great Backerganj Cyclone||1876||Bangladesh||200,000 deaths|
|3||India Cyclone||1839||India||300,000 deaths|
|4||Coringa Cyclone||1839||India||20,000 deaths|
|5||Haiphong Typhoon||1881||Vietnam||300,000 deaths|
|6||1991 Bangladesh Cyclone||1991||Bangladesh||140,000 deaths|
|7||Orissa Cyclone||1999||India||10,000 deaths|
|8||Rupnarayan River Cyclone||1864||India||60,000 deaths|
|9||Super Typhoon Nina||1975||China||171,000 deaths|
|10||Super Typhoon Bopha||2012||Philippines||1,901 deaths|
|11||Typhoon Tip||1979||Japan||99 deaths|
|12||Super Typhoon Haiyan||2013||Philippines||6,300 deaths|
|13||Typhoon Nina||1975||China||229,000 deaths|
|14||Typhoon Morakot||2009||Taiwan||600 deaths|
|15||Typhoon Vera||1959||Japan||5,000 deaths|
|16||Cyclone Sidr||2007||Bangladesh||4,000 deaths|
|17||Super Typhoon Megi||2010||Philippines||69 deaths|
|18||Cyclone Gafilo||2004||Madagascar||363 deaths|
|19||Cyclone Nargis||2008||Myanmar||138,000 deaths|
|20||Hurricane Katrina||2005||USA||1,836 deaths|
|21||Hurricane Maria||2017||Puerto Rico||2,975 deaths|
|22||Hurricane Irma||2017||Caribbean||134 deaths|
|23||Hurricane Andrew||1992||USA||65 deaths|
|24||Hurricane Harvey||2017||USA||107 deaths|
|25||Hurricane Mitch||1998||Central America||11,000 deaths|
|26||Hurricane Sandy||2012||USA||233 deaths|
|27||Hurricane Maria||2017||Dominica||31 deaths|
|28||Hurricane Isabel||2003||USA||51 deaths|
|29||Hurricane Ivan||2004||USA||56 deaths|
|30||Hurricane Wilma||2005||USA||87 deaths|
|31||Cyclone Chapala||2015||Yemen||5 deaths|
|32||Cyclone Gonu||2007||Oman||49 deaths|
|33||Cyclone Phailin||2013||India||45 deaths|
|34||Cyclone Hudhud||2014||India||124 deaths|
|35||Cyclone Aila||2009||Bangladesh||190 deaths|
|36||Cyclone Mala||2006||Myanmar||22 deaths|
|37||Cyclone Vayu||2019||India||13 deaths|
|38||Cyclone Fani||2019||India||89 deaths|
|39||Cyclone Tauktae||2021||India||167 deaths|
|40||Typhoon Haiyan||2013||Vietnam||11 deaths|
|41||Typhoon Lekima||2019||China||56 deaths|
|42||Typhoon Hato||2017||Macau||26 deaths|
|43||Typhoon Mangkhut||2018||Philippines||127 deaths|
Natural disasters can have devastating consequences, and cyclones, hurricanes, and typhoons are among the most destructive. Several hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons have caused significant loss of life and property damage. The storms caused damage, particularly in countries located in tropical regions where these weather events are more common. This article will explore some deadliest cyclones, hurricanes, and typhoons globally & global history.
What are Cyclones?
Cyclones, or tropical cyclones, do intense, rotating winds that characterize weather phenomena. These winds originate over warm ocean waters in the tropics. Meteorologists classify them as low-pressure systems and, in many regions of the globe, go by different names.
Cyclones form when warm, moist air rises from the ocean’s surface and cools as it ascends. As the air cools, it releases heat, which fuels the formation of the storm. The rising air then causes a drop in air pressure at the surface. The surrounding air rushes in to fill the void. It creates strong winds that spiral around a calm center, known as the eye of the storm.
Cyclones can be highly destructive. The winds reach 200 miles per hour, and heavy rainfall and storm surges can cause flooding and landslides. They may harm structures and facilities and disrupt transportation, power, and water supplies.
Forecasting and tracking cyclones are essential for emergency management and disaster preparedness. Advanced warning systems and evacuation plans can help minimize the impact of these powerful storms.
What are Hurricanes?
A hurricane is an extensive, rotating tropical weather system characterized by strong winds. The speed of the winds is at least (119 kph) 74 miles per hour—also, heavy rainfall, storm surges, and potential flooding. Typhoons and cyclones are other names for hurricanes, depending on the region where they occur.
Hurricanes typically form over warm ocean waters in the tropics. The atmosphere, where there is high humidity, and the air is relatively calm, suits them. As warm air rises, it creates a low-pressure area, and the surrounding air rushes in to fill the void. This process causes a rotating motion that intensifies, eventually developing into a full-fledged hurricane.
The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale assesses hurricanes’ power and severity. It classifies them into five categories based on wind speeds, ranging from Category 1 (74-95 mph) to Category 5 (over 157 mph).
Hurricanes can cause widespread destruction, including damage to buildings, infrastructure, agriculture, and loss of life. They also significantly impact the environment, causing erosion, landslides, and destruction of habitats. Additionally, hurricanes can disrupt transportation, communication, and supply chains, leading to significant economic losses.
What are Typhoons?
Typhoons are intense tropical cyclones. They form in the Pacific Ocean and can cause significant damage and destruction to coastal regions. Strong winds, heavy rainfall, and storm surges are characteristics of typhoons, which can cause extensive flooding and landslides.
Typhoons develop when warm, humid air rises from the ocean’s surface, condenses, and produces clouds. The conversion of water vapor into liquid water releases latent heat, which powers the process. Cooler air, which likewise rises and generates a low-pressure system, replaces warm air as it grows.
As the low-pressure system intensifies, it can develop into a tropical storm and typhoon. Typhoons are classified based on their wind speeds. Category one typhoons have sustained winds of 74 to 95 mph, while category five typhoons have winds over 155 mph.
Typhoons can cause widespread damage to infrastructure, homes, and buildings and disrupt transportation and communication systems. They can also cause significant loss of life, especially in coastal areas vulnerable to storm surges and flooding.
To minimize the impact of typhoons, governments, and communities must prepare in advance by implementing measures. For Instance:
- Building sea walls and evacuation centers
- Stocking up on emergency supplies
- Developing early warning systems to alert residents to impending storms.
Causes of Cyclones, Hurricanes, and Typhoons
These rotating storm systems form over warm tropical oceans and can cause significant damage and loss of life when they land.
The primary cause of tropical cyclones is a combination of warm ocean water and atmospheric instability. As warm, moist air rises from the ocean surface, it cools and condenses, releasing heat energy. This energy drives the storm’s circulation. The rotation of the Earth also plays a role in the development of tropical cyclones. It causes the storm system to spin and grow stronger.
Other factors that can contribute to the formation and intensification of tropical cyclones include:
- Low wind shear: Wind shear is the difference in wind speed and direction at different levels of the atmosphere. Low wind shear allows a tropical cyclone to develop and maintain its structure.
- High humidity: Moisture in the atmosphere is a crucial ingredient for tropical cyclones. When there is plenty of moisture in the air, it can fuel the storm’s development.
- Coriolis force: The Coriolis force, caused by the Earth’s rotation, pushes the storm to rotate. This rotation is in a cyclonic [clockwise (the Southern Hemisphere) and anticlockwise (the Northern Hemisphere)] direction.
- Warm sea surface temperatures: Tropical cyclones need at least 26°C (79°F) to form and strengthen.
- Location: Tropical cyclones typically form between 5 and 30 degrees latitude, where the water is warm and there is ample moisture in the atmosphere.
Once a tropical cyclone has formed, Weather patterns impact it and may steer it. High and low-pressure systems and jet streams can control them. Climate change may also affect the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. However, further study is required to grasp the full extent of this impact.
What is the difference between Hurricanes, Cyclones, and Typhoons
Cyclones, hurricanes, and typhoons are all tropical storms, which are sizeable rotating weather systems that form over warm ocean waters. The primary difference between these weather phenomena is their location.
Hurricane is the name of these storms in the Atlantic and northeastern Pacific Oceans. In the northwestern Pacific Ocean, they are called typhoons. In the Indian Ocean and southwestern Pacific Ocean, Cyclones are the name for them.
However, there are also some differences in the characteristics of these storms. Hurricanes are generally more potent than cyclones and typhoons, with wind speeds exceeding 150 miles per hour. Typhoons are typically smaller than hurricanes but can still produce significant damage. Cyclones are generally weaker than hurricanes and typhoons but can still cause damage and loss of life.
In terms of the damage they can cause, all three types of storms. They can produce strong winds, heavy rain, and storm surge, a rising sea level caused by the storm’s winds and low pressure. These weather phenomena can lead to flooding, landslides, and other types of damage.
The differences between cyclones, hurricanes, and typhoons are primarily related to their location. They can also vary in intensity and impact depending on various factors.
1. Bhola Cyclone, 1970
The Bhola Cyclone struck East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) on November 12th, 1970. The Cyclone was the worst tropical storm ever seen, killing an estimated 500,000 people and leaving millions homeless. The storm surge that accompanied the Cyclone was responsible for most of the deaths. It inundated the low-lying coastal areas of the region. The lack of early warning systems, poor communication infrastructure, and inadequate evacuation measures contributed to the high death toll. The Bhola Cyclone is considered a watershed event in the history of Bangladesh. It was then a newly formed country struggling with political instability and poverty.
2. Great Backerganj Cyclone, 1876
The Great Backerganj Cyclone hit the coastal region of present-day Bangladesh on October 31st, 1876. A storm surge caused by the Cyclone swamped vast tracts of land and killed an estimated 200,000 people. The Cyclone also caused significant damage to infrastructure, including the loss of ships and boats in the affected region. The Backerganj Cyclone is considered one of the deadliest natural disasters in history. It is a stark reminder of the vulnerability of low-lying coastal areas to such events.
3. India Cyclone, 1839
The India Cyclone struck the coastal region of Coromandel in southeastern India on November 25th, 1839. The Cyclone caused widespread damage and loss of life, with an estimated death toll of 300,000 people. The storm surge that accompanied the Cyclone inundated large areas of land, destroying homes, crops, and infrastructure. The India Cyclone is considered one of the deadliest natural disasters in the history of India. It led to significant changes in the colonial administration’s disaster response strategies.
4. Coringa Cyclone, 1839
The Coringa Cyclone was a devastating tropical cyclone that struck the coastal region of Coringa on November 25th, 1839. Presently, it is Andhra Pradesh, India. The Cyclone caused a storm surge that inundated large land areas, killing an estimated 20,000 people. The Cyclone also caused significant damage to infrastructure, including the loss of ships and boats in the affected region. The Coringa Cyclone is considered one of the deadliest natural disasters in the history of India.
5. Haiphong Typhoon, 1881
The Haiphong Typhoon hit the Gulf of Tonkin in northern Vietnam on October 8th, 1881. The typhoon caused a storm surge that inundated large land areas, killing 300,000 people. The storm also caused significant damage to infrastructure, including the loss of ships and boats in the affected region. The Haiphong Typhoon is considered one of the deadliest natural disasters in the history of Vietnam. It remains etched in the collective memory of the Vietnamese people.
6. 1991 Bangladesh Cyclone
In April 1991, a massive cyclone struck the southeastern coast of Bangladesh. It killed an estimated 140,000 people and caused extensive damage to the region. The storm surge was devastating, as it inundated low-lying areas and left many stranded people without food, water, or shelter. The Bangladeshi government launched a massive relief effort to aid survivors, but the scale of the disaster overwhelmed their resources.
7. Orissa Cyclone, 1999
In October 1999, a powerful cyclone hit the eastern Indian state of Orissa. It killed an estimated 10,000 people and caused widespread damage to homes, infrastructure, and crops. The storm surge flooded many areas along the coast, while high winds and heavy rain caused landslides and destroyed buildings. The Indian government responded with a large-scale relief effort. Unfortunately, the recovery process was slow, and many people suffered in the aftermath of the disaster.
8. Rupnarayan River Cyclone, 1864
In October 1864, a severe cyclone struck the eastern coast of India near the mouth of the Rupnarayan River. It caused massive flooding and widespread destruction. The storm surge reached as high as 40 feet in some areas. It swept away entire villages and killed an estimated 60,000 people. The disaster prompted the British colonial authorities to launch a significant effort to improve flood protection in the region.
9. Super Typhoon Nina, 1975
In August 1975, Super Typhoon Nina hit China’s Guangdong Province. It caused widespread flooding and landslides that killed an estimated 171,000 people. The storm was among the most powerful ever recorded in the South China Sea. The speed of the winds in it was up to 300 km/h. And a storm surge reached as high as 10 meters in some areas. The Chinese government launched a massive relief effort to aid survivors, but the scale of the disaster overwhelmed their resources.
10. Super Typhoon Bopha, 2012
In December 2012, Super Typhoon Bopha struck the southern Philippines, causing extensive damage and killing 1,901 people. The storm produced solid gusts and heavy rain, flooding many areas. It destroyed homes and infrastructure and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. The Philippine government launched a large-scale relief effort to aid survivors. Unfortunately, the recovery process was slow, and many people suffered in the aftermath of the disaster.
11. Typhoon Tip, 1979
With a diameter of 1,400 miles, Typhoon Tip was the largest typhoon on record. It made landfall in Japan and caused 99 deaths and significant damage to buildings, infrastructure, and agriculture.
12. Super Typhoon Haiyan, 2013
One of the most catastrophic storms ever recorded was Super Typhoon Haiyan. The speed of the winds in it was up to 195 miles per hour. It hit the Philippines and caused widespread destruction, resulting in 6,300 deaths and displacing millions of people.
13. Typhoon Nina, 1975
Typhoon Nina was a catastrophic storm that hit China in August 1975. It caused severe flooding, landslides, and mudflows, resulting in an estimated 229,000 deaths and significant economic losses.
14. Typhoon Morakot, 2009
Typhoon Morakot was a powerful storm that struck Taiwan in August 2009. It caused widespread flooding, landslides, and mudflows, resulting in around 600 deaths and significant damage to infrastructure and agriculture.
15. Typhoon Vera, 1959
Typhoon Vera was a powerful storm that hit Japan in September 1959. It caused widespread destruction, with winds reaching up to 160 miles per hour, resulting in 5,000 deaths.
16. Cyclone Sidr, 2007
2007 Cyclone Sidr struck Bangladesh on November 15th, leaving a destruction trail. The Cyclone, rated a Category 4, caused over 4,000 deaths and displaced over 8 million people. The storm caused massive flooding, landslides, and damage to infrastructure. The country’s economy suffered greatly, and many people lost their homes.
17. Super Typhoon Megi, 2010
In 2010, Super Typhoon Megi struck the Philippines, which caused massive destruction and loss of life. The typhoon. It received a Category 5 rating, caused 69 deaths, and displaced over 120,000 people. The storm caused massive flooding, landslides, and infrastructure damage, including destroying many homes.
18. Cyclone Gafilo, 2004
In Madagascar, Cyclone Gafilo struck the island nation in March 2004, causing severe damage and loss of life. This Category 5 Cyclone caused significant damage, caused 363 deaths, and displaced over 300,000 people. The storm caused massive flooding, landslides, and infrastructure damage, including destroying many homes.
19. Cyclone Nargis, 2008
On May 2nd, 2008, Cyclone Nargis hit Myanmar, causing one of the deadliest natural disasters in recent history. This Category 4 Cyclone caused significant damage, caused over 138,000 deaths, and displaced over 2 million people. The storm caused massive flooding, landslides, and infrastructure damage, including destroying many homes.
20. Hurricane Katrina, 2005
In 2005, Hurricane Katrina struck the United States, causing severe damage and loss of life. The hurricane. This Category 5 caused significant damage, caused 1,836 deaths, and displaced over 1 million people. The storm caused massive flooding, landslides, and infrastructure damage, including destroying many homes and businesses.
21. Hurricane Maria, 2017
It struck Puerto Rico in September 2017. This category 5 hurricane caused massive devastation, destroying homes and infrastructure across the island. The hurricane also knocked out power to the entire island, leaving its inhabitants without electricity for months. According to official reports, Hurricane Maria claimed the lives of 2,975 people. It makes this hurricane the deadliest to hit Puerto Rico in over a century.
22. Hurricane Irma, 2017
It hit the Caribbean in September 2017, just weeks before Hurricane Maria. This category 5 hurricane was one of the most powerful Atlantic hurricanes, with wind speeds up to 185 mph. It caused widespread damage and killed 134 people, including 10 in the United States.
23. Hurricane Andrew, 1992
This hurricane struck the United States in August 1992. This category 5 hurricane was the most destructive hurricane in US history at the time, causing $26.5 billion in damages. The hurricane claimed the lives of 65 people and forced thousands of individuals to go homeless in its wake.
24. Hurricane Harvey, 2017
This hurricane hit the United States in August 2017, causing widespread flooding and destruction across Texas and Louisiana. The hurricane claimed the lives of 107 people and generated $125 billion in damages. It makes this the second-costliest hurricane in US history after Hurricane Katrina.
25. Hurricane Mitch, 1998
This hurricane struck Central America in October 1998, causing widespread devastation and killing 11,000 people. The hurricane caused severe flooding and landslides, destroying homes and infrastructure across several countries, including Honduras, Nicaragua, and Guatemala.
26. Hurricane Sandy, 2012
Hurricane Sandy struck the American east coast in October 2012. It caused widespread damage in New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. The hurricane resulted in the death of 233 people and generated over $70 billion in damages. The storm’s impact was felt for years, as many families lost their homes, businesses, and communities.
27. Hurricane Maria, 2017
In September 2017, Hurricane Maria landed on the Caribbean island of Dominica. It caused severe damage and took the lives of 31 people. The hurricane also caused significant damage to Puerto Rico. The damage led to the loss of over 2,900 lives and an estimated $90 billion in damages.
28. Hurricane Isabel, 2003
In September 2003, Hurricane Isabel hit the east coast of the United States. It resulted in 51 deaths and caused widespread damage. The hurricane caused significant flooding, destroying or severely damaging many homes.
29. Hurricane Ivan, 2004
In September 2004, Hurricane Ivan landed on the Gulf Coast of the United States. It resulted in 56 deaths and caused over $18 billion in damages. The hurricane caused significant flooding and widespread destruction, particularly in Florida and Alabama.
30. Hurricane Wilma, 2005
In October 2005, Hurricane Wilma hit the United States, resulting in 87 deaths and causing over $20 billion in damages. The hurricane caused significant flooding and destruction, particularly in Florida.
31. Cyclone Chapala, 2015
In November 2015, Cyclone Chapala struck Yemen, causing widespread flooding and severe damage to infrastructure. At least five people lost their lives, and thousands were displaced. The Cyclone was the most powerful to hit Yemen in decades and highlighted the country’s vulnerability to natural disasters.
32. Cyclone Gonu, 2007
In June 2007, Cyclone Gonu hit Oman, causing extensive damage and claiming 49 lives. The Cyclone was the strongest to hit the Arabian Peninsula in over 30 years. It caused widespread flooding, landslides, and power outages. The Omani government responded swiftly to the crisis, mobilizing emergency services and aid to help those affected by the disaster.
33. Cyclone Phailin, 2013
In October 2013, Cyclone Phailin struck India’s eastern coast, causing widespread destruction and 45 deaths. The Cyclone was one of the strongest to hit India in recent years. It caused flooding, landslides, and damage to infrastructure. However, the Indian government’s early warning systems and preparedness measures helped reduce the disaster’s impact.
34. Cyclone Hudhud, 2014
In October 2014, Cyclone Hudhud hit India’s east coast, causing extensive damage and 124 deaths. The Cyclone was one of the strongest to hit the region in over a decade. It caused severe flooding, landslides, and damage to infrastructure. The Indian government received praise for handling the disaster for its efficiency and effectiveness.
35. Cyclone Aila, 2009
In May 2009, Cyclone Aila hit Bangladesh, causing widespread devastation and claiming 190 lives. The Cyclone caused severe flooding, landslides, and damage to infrastructure, leaving many people homeless and without access to necessities. The Bangladeshi government responded quickly to the disaster, mobilizing aid and resources to help those affected by the Cyclone.
36. Cyclone Mala, 2006
In April 2006, Cyclone Mala struck Myanmar, causing extensive damage and killing 22 people. The Cyclone hit the Irrawaddy Delta, caused widespread flooding, and destroyed homes and infrastructure.
37. Cyclone Vayu, 2019
A severe tropical storm, Cyclone Vayu, hit the Indian state of Gujarat in June 2019. The Cyclone caused the evacuation of over 3,50,000 people and resulted in the deaths of 13 people.
38. Cyclone Fani, 2019
This Cyclone was one of the most severe storms to hit India in recent years. The Cyclone made landfall in Odisha in May 2019. It led to the deaths of 89 people and caused widespread damage to homes, crops, and infrastructure.
39. Cyclone Tauktae, 2021
A very severe cyclonic storm, Cyclone Tauktae, hit the western coast of India in May 2021. The Cyclone led to the deaths of 167 people. It caused massive destruction to infrastructure, crops, and homes in the affected areas.
40. Typhoon Haiyan, 2013
It was one of the deadliest typhoons to hit Vietnam. The typhoon hit the country in November 2013. It caused the deaths of 11 people and caused extensive damage to infrastructure and homes.
41. Typhoon Lekima, 2019
This powerful typhoon hit the eastern coast of China in August 2019. The typhoon resulted in the deaths of 56 people. It caused massive destruction to infrastructure and homes in the affected areas.
42. Typhoon Hato, 2017
It was a deadly typhoon that hit Macau in August 2017. It caused the deaths of 26 people and led to massive flooding and damage to infrastructure and homes.
43. Typhoon Mangkhut, 2018
It was one of the most severe typhoons to hit the Philippines in recent years. The typhoon hit the country in September 2018. It led to the deaths of 127 people and caused extensive damage to infrastructure, crops, and homes.
Cyclones, Hurricanes, and Typhoons are powerful natural disasters that can cause massive destruction and loss of life. Preparing for these events and taking necessary precautions to minimize their impact is crucial. The world must unite to help countries affected by these disasters and offer aid and support to those in need.
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