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I. What is CRPD 2006?

The CRPD, or the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, is an international human rights treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2006. Its purpose is to protect and promote the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities. The Convention aims to ensure that persons with disabilities enjoy full equality under the law and participate fully in society on an equal basis with others, without discrimination.

The CRPD consists of a preamble and 50 articles. Here are the summaries of each article of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD):

Article 1: Purpose

The article underscores the intention of the present Convention, which is to advocate, safeguard, and ensure the complete and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by individuals with disabilities. It emphasizes the need to respect the inherent dignity of persons with disabilities. It acknowledges that various physical, mental, intellectual, or sensory impairments and societal barriers may impede their full participation in society.

Article 2: Definitions

This section elucidates key terms utilized throughout the Convention. It clarifies the scope of “communication,” “language,” “discrimination based on disability,” “reasonable accommodation,” and “universal design.” These definitions serve as a foundation for understanding the subsequent articles and guiding principles of the Convention.

Article 3: General Principles

The article delineates the overarching principles guiding the Convention. These principles include respect for inherent dignity, individual autonomy, and independence; non-discrimination; full and effective participation and inclusion in society; respect for diversity; equality of opportunity; accessibility; gender equality; and consideration for the evolving capacities of children with disabilities while preserving their identities.

Article 4: General Obligations

States Parties pledge to secure the fulfillment of human rights and fundamental freedoms for individuals with disabilities, ensuring non-discrimination. This includes adopting legislative, administrative, and other measures to implement Convention rights, modifying or abolishing discriminatory laws and practices, integrating disability rights into policies and programs, refraining from acts contrary to the Convention, eliminating disability-based discrimination by any entity, promoting research and development of universally designed goods and technologies, and facilitating professional training to serve persons with disabilities better.

Article 5: Equality And Non-Discrimination

States Parties recognize the equality of all individuals before the law and pledge to prohibit and combat all forms of disability-based discrimination. They commit to ensuring equal legal protection and effective remedies against discrimination, promoting reasonable accommodation, and implementing specific measures to achieve de facto equality for persons with disabilities.

Article 6: Women With Disabilities

Acknowledging the intersectionality of discrimination, States Parties undertake measures to ensure that women and girls with disabilities enjoy all human rights and freedoms without discrimination. They commit to promoting the full development and empowerment of women with disabilities to enable their exercise and enjoyment of rights enshrined in the Convention.

Article 7: Children With Disabilities

States Parties vow to uphold the rights of children with disabilities, ensuring their full enjoyment of human rights on an equal basis with other children. The best interests of the child must guide all actions concerning children with disabilities, who also have the right to express their views freely, with due consideration given to their age and maturity.

Article 8: Awareness-Raising

States Parties agree to implement measures to raise awareness and foster respect for the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities. These measures include combating stereotypes and prejudices, promoting positive perceptions of disability, recognizing the contributions of persons with disabilities, integrating disability awareness into education, media portrayal, and conducting awareness training programs.

Article 9: Accessibility

States Parties commit to ensuring accessibility for persons with disabilities in all aspects of life. This includes physical environments, transportation, information and communication technologies, and other public facilities and services. Measures encompass eliminating barriers, setting standards, training stakeholders, providing assistance, promoting access to new technologies, and ensuring the early development and distribution of accessible technologies.

Article 10: Right To Life

States Parties reaffirm the inherent right to life for every human being, including persons with disabilities, and pledge to take all necessary measures to ensure its effective enjoyment by individuals with disabilities on an equal basis with others.

Article 11: Situations Of Risk And Humanitarian Emergencies

States Parties commit to safeguarding the safety and protection of persons with disabilities during various risk situations, including armed conflict, humanitarian emergencies, and natural disasters, following international humanitarian and human rights law.

Article 12: Equal Recognition Before The Law

Persons with disabilities have the right to be recognized as persons before the law and enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others. States Parties must ensure access to necessary support for persons with disabilities in exercising their legal capacity while implementing safeguards to prevent abuse and ensure respect for their rights, will, and preferences. Additionally, persons with disabilities have equal rights to property ownership, financial control, and access to financial services.

Article 13: Access To Justice

States Parties pledge to provide effective access to justice for persons with disabilities, ensuring their participation as direct or indirect participants in legal proceedings, with appropriate accommodations. This includes offering training for justice administration professionals to facilitate equitable access to justice.

Article 14: Liberty And Security Of Person

Persons with disabilities are entitled to the right to liberty and security on an equal basis. States Parties must ensure that any deprivation of liberty is lawful, not arbitrary, and does not occur based on disability. Moreover, persons with disabilities must receive guarantees consistent with international human rights law, including reasonable accommodations, if they are deprived of their liberty.

Article 15: Freedom From Torture Or Cruel, Inhuman Or Degrading Treatment Or Punishment

States Parties must enact measures to prevent persons with disabilities from being subjected to torture or inhumane treatment. This includes protecting individuals from medical or scientific experimentation without their free consent.

Article 16: Freedom From Exploitation, Violence And Abuse

States Parties commit to protecting persons with disabilities from all forms of exploitation, violence, and abuse, including gender-based violence. This entails implementing measures to prevent, recognize, report, and address instances of exploitation or abuse, providing age and gender-sensitive support services, and ensuring the recovery and reintegration of victims.

Article 17: Protecting The Integrity Of The Person

Persons with disabilities have the right to the same respect for their physical and mental integrity as others.

Article 18: Liberty Of Movement And Nationality

States Parties recognize the right of persons with disabilities to liberty of movement, residence choice, and nationality on an equal basis. This includes ensuring access to documentation, immigration proceedings, and the ability to enter and leave their country.

Article 19: Living Independently And Being Included In The Community

States Parties acknowledge the equal right of persons with disabilities to live in the community and participate fully, providing necessary support services, preventing isolation or segregation, and ensuring access to community facilities and services.

Article 20: Personal Mobility

States Parties commit to ensuring personal mobility for persons with disabilities, facilitating their independent movement through various means, including affordable access to mobility aids, devices, assistive technologies, and mobility skills training.

Article 21: Freedom Of Expression And Opinion And Access To Information

States Parties must ensure that persons with disabilities can exercise their right to freedom of expression and opinion, including access to information, on an equal basis with others. This includes providing information in accessible formats, facilitating various communication methods such as sign languages and Braille, encouraging private entities and mass media to make their services accessible, and promoting the use of sign languages.

Article 22: Respect For Privacy

Persons with disabilities have the right to privacy, family, home, and correspondence protected by law against arbitrary interference or attacks on their honor and reputation. States Parties must safeguard personal, health, and rehabilitation information of persons with disabilities, ensuring equal protection as others.

Article 23: Respect For Home And The Family

States Parties must eliminate discrimination against persons with disabilities in matters relating to marriage, family, parenthood, and relationships. This includes recognizing the right to marry and found a family, access to reproductive and family planning information and services, and retaining fertility. States must ensure equal rights and responsibilities in guardianship, adoption, and child-rearing, preventing separation from parents based on disability.

Article 24: Education

States Parties recognize the right of persons with disabilities to education without discrimination, ensuring inclusive education systems at all levels. This includes access to free and compulsory primary and secondary education, reasonable accommodation, support services, life and social development skills, and vocational training. States must employ qualified teachers, provide assistive devices, and ensure access to tertiary education and lifelong learning.

Article 25: Health

Individuals with disabilities are entitled to the highest achievable standard of health, free from discrimination. States Parties must provide access to gender-sensitive health services, including rehabilitation, without discrimination. This includes equal access to healthcare, prevention, early intervention services, training for health professionals, and prohibition of discriminatory denial of healthcare.

Article 26: Habilitation And Rehabilitation

States Parties must provide comprehensive habilitation and rehabilitation services to enable persons with disabilities to attain maximum independence and inclusion. Services should be multidisciplinary, voluntary, community-based, and provide support from an early stage. States must promote training for professionals, availability of assistive devices, and support for peer assistance.

Article 27: Work And Employment

Persons with disabilities have the right to work on an equal basis with others, including access to an open and accessible labor market and work environment. States Parties must prohibit discrimination in employment, ensure equal opportunities, reasonable accommodation, just and favorable conditions of work, and access to vocational guidance, training, and support programs. Forced or compulsory labor is prohibited.

Article 28: Adequate Standard Of Living And Social Protection

Individuals with disabilities possess the right to adequate living standards and social protection devoid of discrimination. States Parties must ensure access to food, clothing, housing, clean water, and social protection programs, including poverty reduction measures. This includes access to disability-related assistance, public housing, retirement benefits, and prevention of discriminatory denial of services.

Article 29: Participation In Political And Public Life

States Parties must guarantee political rights to persons with disabilities, ensuring their effective participation in political and public life on an equal basis with others. This includes access to voting, standing for elections, holding office, and participating in public affairs with appropriate accommodations. States must promote active involvement in NGOs, political parties, and public activities.

Article 30: Participation In Cultural Life, Recreation, Leisure And Sport

Persons with disabilities have the right to participate in cultural life, recreation, leisure, and sport equally with others. States Parties must ensure access to cultural materials, activities, venues, and intellectual property rights without discrimination. This includes recognizing and supporting specific cultural and linguistic identities and access to mainstream and disability-specific activities and services for children with disabilities.

Article 31: Statistics And Data Collection

States Parties must collect appropriate information, including statistical and research data, to formulate and implement policies in line with the Convention. Data collection processes must comply with legal safeguards for privacy and human rights norms. Disaggregated data should be used to assess implementation and address barriers faced by persons with disabilities.

Article 32: International Cooperation

States Parties recognize the importance of international cooperation in realizing the Convention’s objectives. Measures include ensuring inclusive international cooperation, capacity-building, sharing information and best practices, research cooperation, technical and economic assistance, and access to assistive technologies.

Article 33: National Implementation And Monitoring

States Parties must designate focal points within government and establish frameworks to promote, protect, and monitor the implementation of the Convention. Civil society, especially persons with disabilities and their organizations, should be fully involved in the monitoring process.

Article 34: Committee On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities

Establishes the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, consisting of experts serving in their capacity. States Parties elect members based on equitable geographical distribution, gender representation, and expertise. The Committee reviews reports submitted by States Parties and makes recommendations.

Article 35: Reports By States Parties

States Parties must submit comprehensive reports on measures to fulfill their obligations under the Convention within two years of ratification. Subsequent reports are due every four years. The Committee considers the reports, provides suggestions and recommendations, and may request further information.

Article 36: Consideration Of Reports

The Committee reviews State Party reports, makes suggestions and recommendations, and forwards them to the respective State Party. If reports are overdue, the Committee may request further information and examine implementation. Reports are made available to all States Parties and the public.

Article 37: Cooperation Between States Parties And The Committee

States Parties must cooperate with the Committee and enhance national capacities for Convention implementation. The Committee considers ways to improve implementation through international cooperation.

Article 38: Relationship Of The Committee With Other Bodies

The Committee may invite specialized agencies and other relevant bodies to provide expert advice on Convention implementation. It consults with other bodies to ensure consistency in reporting guidelines and recommendations.

Article 39: Report Of The Committee

The Committee reports to the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council every two years on its activities, including suggestions and recommendations based on examining State Party reports.

Article 40: Conference Of States Parties

States Parties convene regularly in a Conference to discuss matters related to Convention implementation. The Secretary-General of the United Nations convenes the first meeting, with subsequent meetings held biennially or as the Conference decides.

Article 41: Depositary

The Convention designates the Secretary-General of the United Nations as its depositary.

Article 42: Signature

The Convention is open for signature by all States and regional integration organizations at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 30 March 2007.

Article 43: Consent To Be Bound

States must ratify the Convention, and regional integration organizations must formally confirm it. Any state or regional integration organization that has yet to sign the Convention can accede to it.

Article 44: Regional Integration Organizations

Defines “regional integration organization” and outlines their competence and voting rights. States Parties apply to such organizations within their competence.

Article 45: Entry Into Force

The Convention enters into force 30 days after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession. For subsequent ratifications or accessions, it enters into force 30 days after the deposit of the respective instrument.

Article 46: Reservations

Reservations incompatible with the Convention’s object and purpose are prohibited and can be withdrawn at any time.

Article 47: Amendments

States Parties may propose amendments, which require a conference if supported by at least one-third of the Parties. Amendments approved by a two-thirds majority enter into force after acceptance by two-thirds of the Parties.

Article 48: Denunciation

A State Party may denounce the Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General, effective one year after receipt.

Article 49: Accessible Format

The text of the Convention must be made available in accessible formats.

Article 50: Authentic Texts

The Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish versions of the Convention are equally authentic.

IN WITNESS THEREOF, plenipotentiaries, duly authorized by their respective Governments, have signed the Convention.

The CRPD represents a significant milestone in advancing disability rights globally, providing a comprehensive framework for protecting and promoting the rights of persons with disabilities. Its principles and provisions guide governments, policymakers, and stakeholders in ensuring the full inclusion and participation of persons with disabilities in society.

What is the UN CRPD?

II. Background and History of CRPD 2006

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) was a landmark treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 13, 2006. It represents a significant advancement in recognizing and protecting the rights of persons with disabilities.

Initial Efforts and Advocacy

The journey toward the CRPD began in the late 20th century, driven by increasing global awareness and advocacy for the rights of persons with disabilities. In March 2000, leaders of six international disability non-governmental organizations (NGOs), along with about 20 regional and national disability organizations, adopted the “Beijing Declaration on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in the New Millennium.” This declaration called on all governments to support a comprehensive convention on the rights of persons with disabilities​.

Formation of the Ad Hoc Committee

In 2001, the United Nations General Assembly, following a proposal by Mexico, established an Ad Hoc Committee to consider proposals for a comprehensive and integral international convention to promote and protect the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities. This initiative was supported by various disability rights organizations, including Disabled Peoples’ International and the International Disability Alliance, which played crucial roles in the drafting process​.

Key Milestones in Negotiations

  1. 2002-2003: New Zealand played a pivotal role in building cross-regional momentum and chaired the Ad Hoc Committee, leading negotiations to a consensus agreement in August 2006. Key members involved in these negotiations included Jordan, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, South Africa, Korea, and Mexico​​.
  2. 2004: A Working Group composed of representatives from governments, NGOs, and disability organizations was formed to develop a draft text for the convention. This draft served as the basis for subsequent negotiations.
  3. 2005-2006: The Ad Hoc Committee held eight sessions, refining and finalizing the draft text. Throughout the process, the involvement of persons with disabilities and their representative organizations was emphasized to ensure the convention reflected their needs and aspirations.

Adoption and Ratification

On December 13, 2006, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the CRPD and its Optional Protocol, allowing individual complaints to be submitted to the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention opened for signature on March 30, 2007, and quickly garnered significant international support. It entered into force on May 3, 2008, after receiving its 20th ratification​ (Wikipedia)​​ (OHCHR)​.

Key Figures and Contributions

  • Mexico: Initiated the proposal for the convention and was actively involved in the negotiations.
  • New Zealand: Chaired the Ad Hoc Committee and facilitated the consensus agreement.
  • International Disability Alliance: Coordinated the involvement of disability organizations and ensured their voices were central to the drafting process.

III. Understanding the Key Principles

In exploring the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), it’s essential to grasp its framework’s key principles. These guiding principles illuminate the path toward equality, inclusion, and dignity for persons with disabilities.

A. Equality and Non-Discrimination

Central to the CRPD is the principle of equality and non-discrimination. Article 1 of the Convention declares its purpose as promoting, protecting, and ensuring the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities. This principle mandates that persons with disabilities should not be treated differently or unfairly based on their disability. Instead, they should enjoy the same rights and opportunities as everyone else on an equal basis.

B. Full and Effective Participation and Inclusion in Society

The CRPD recognizes the right of persons with disabilities to participate fully and effectively in society. This principle acknowledges that participation and inclusion are essential to a dignified and meaningful life. It encompasses physical access to public spaces and removing barriers that hinder participation in social, cultural, economic, and political activities. Article 3 of the CRPD emphasizes the importance of accessibility and inclusion in promoting the full participation of persons with disabilities.

C. Respect for Difference and Acceptance of Persons with Disabilities as Part of Human Diversity

Another fundamental principle of the CRPD is respecting differences and accepting persons with disabilities as part of human diversity. This principle recognizes that disability is a natural aspect of the human experience and that persons with disabilities have unique perspectives, talents, and contributions to offer to society. Article 8 of the CRPD calls for awareness-raising to promote positive perceptions and greater acceptance of persons with disabilities.

D. Accessibility

Accessibility lies at the heart of the CRPD, enabling persons with disabilities to exercise their rights and participate fully in society. Accessibility encompasses physical, information, communication, and technology accessibility, ensuring that persons with disabilities can navigate their environment, access information, communicate effectively, and use assistive devices and technologies. Articles 9 and 21 of the CRPD highlight the importance of accessibility in various contexts, from transportation and public facilities to information and communication technologies.

E. Equality of Opportunity

Finally, the CRPD upholds the principle of equality of opportunity, emphasizing that persons with disabilities should have the same opportunities as others to realize their full potential and pursue their goals and aspirations. This principle rejects paternalistic attitudes and charity-based approaches, instead advocating for empowerment, autonomy, and self-determination for persons with disabilities. Articles 5 and 27 of the CRPD affirm the right to equal employment opportunities and access to education and vocational training.


IV. Implementation and Challenges

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), adopted in 2006, sets a comprehensive framework for upholding the rights of persons with disabilities. However, its implementation faces several challenges.

A. National Implementation Mechanisms

States Parties are required to establish national mechanisms for coordinating and monitoring CRPD implementation. These mechanisms are essential for developing policies, legislation, and programs that promote the inclusion of persons with disabilities in all areas of life.

B. Challenges in Implementing the CRPD

Despite progress, significant challenges persist. These include a lack of awareness of disability rights, insufficient resources, social stigma, and inadequate access to services and support for persons with disabilities. Overcoming these barriers requires dedicated efforts from governments, civil society, and other stakeholders.


V. Future Directions and Conclusion

Rights Under the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability (UNCRPD)

As we reflect on the journey we’ve undertaken through the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), it’s clear that much work still needs to be done. While the CRPD has laid a solid foundation for advancing the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities, the road ahead is marked by both challenges and opportunities.

A. Ongoing Efforts in Advancing Disability Rights

Despite the challenges, numerous ongoing efforts are aimed at advancing disability rights and promoting the full implementation of the CRPD. From grassroots advocacy campaigns to international initiatives, individuals and organizations worldwide are working tirelessly to raise awareness, mobilize support, and hold governments accountable for upholding their commitments under the Convention.

B. Calls for Further Action and Improvement

However, there are still areas where progress is needed. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted and exacerbated existing inequalities and barriers faced by persons with disabilities, underscoring the urgent need for comprehensive and inclusive responses. Moving forward, it is essential to prioritize the needs and rights of persons with disabilities in all aspects of recovery and rebuilding efforts.

C. Conclusion: The Continuing Relevance of the CRPD

In conclusion, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) remains as relevant and essential today as it was adopted in 2006. Its principles of equality, non-discrimination, and inclusion serve as guiding lights in the ongoing struggle for disability rights worldwide. While there are challenges to overcome and obstacles to navigate, the CRPD provides a roadmap for creating a more just, equitable, and inclusive society for all.

As we look to the future, let us reaffirm our commitment to upholding the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities and working towards a world where everyone can live with autonomy, dignity, and respect. Together, we can build a future where disability is not seen as a barrier but as a natural and valued aspect of human diversity. It’s a journey that promises a brighter, more inclusive tomorrow.

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Junaid Khan

Junaid Khan JD/MBA (Human Resources Management) is an expert on harassment laws since 2009. He is a passionate advocate for victims of harassment and works to educate the public about harassment laws and prevention. He is also a sought-after speaker on human resource management, relationships, parenting, and the importance of respecting others.

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